To be a refugee, to be without rights, you do not necessarily have to leave or be expelled from a political community: you can live within a political and national community and still be apart from it. The homeless, the dispossessed, the marginalized in our midst all offer examples of lives endured with only the barest necessities, or indeed, with nothing at all. Sada Tangara (1981, Bamako/Mali) explores such “internal exile” in his documentation of fellow countrymen (most no older than boys), as they eke out a precarious living on the streets of Dakar. These children, abandoned and without any community other than that which they can cobble together on the streets, huddle in doorways and in derelict cars trying to catch whatever sleep they can. © Aperture Magazine